Krak de Chevaliers:
Hospitaller castle given to the Order by Raymond II of Tripoli (1144), along with four other fortresses and two towns. Victory over Nur ed-Din (1163). Held after the defeat of the Franks at Hattin (July 1187) and besieged by Saladin (July 1188). Forbidden to make improvements or reinforce under Emperor Frederick II (1228). Fell to Baybars (1271).
Built by Emir of Homs (1031) and expanded by Crusaders (mid-12th century). Taken by Crusaders (1110) and nearly destroyed; new castle built on ruins and rebuilt. Withheld sieges and never breached; surrounded by army of Baybars and surrendered (1271).
Remains: outside wall and 13 towers; main entrance; inner wall; moat; chapel; loggia; towers; great hall.
"For my part, I adhere to the maxim of antiquity: The throne is a glorious sepulchre."