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Join date : 2008-10-26
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|Subject: Women & Warfare - Part 1 Sun Nov 02, 2008 8:33 am|| |
Women and Warfare
Since time immemorial, women have stood alongside their men-folk in defence of home and hearth. This is purely a survival instinct - for women have had a far deal more to lose should home and hearth fall to invaders.
Women have long been considered the “spoils of war” regardless of time and history, whether they be carried off as unwilling wives, concubines or slaves. And status did not exempt one - no, for the higher the woman’s status, the greater her “value” as a prize.
A women’s role in warfare can be divided into a number of different categories:
(1) Women who actively contributed to the defence of their homes, estates, or castles. Women undertook this defensive role usually in their father’s or husband’s stead.
- Agnes Randolph, Countess of Dunbar ~~~ defied the Earl of Salisbury for five months when he laid siege to her castle at Dunbar (January - June 1338).
- Caterina Sforza, Countess of Forli ~~~ rebelled against the incursions of Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI.
“My Prince, I advise you to treat with Caterina Sforza under a white flag. Her troops are too strongly encrenellated in the fortress, and it will take months to root the rebels out. For everyday we fight, more of your loyal troops are slaughtered, more of your good citizens have property damaged or destroyed, and the crops go unharvested and children starve. The battle must be ended.” (Source: Niccolo Machiavelli “The Prince”)
- Eschiva of Tiberias ~~~ defended her town and castle against the forces of Saladin (July 1187). The attempted relief of Tiberias by the Crusaders led to the fateful Battle of Hattin.
- Stephanie of Milly, Lady of Outlrejourdain ~~~ defended her castle of Kerak against both Nur ed-Din (1170s) and Saladin (1183).
- Jimena ~~~ led defence of Valencia (1101 - 1102), though forced to abandon city in the face of overwhelming odds.
(2) Women who acted in a military capacity, similar to a modern-day general of an armed force. These were usually noblewomen who did not necessarily take to the battlefield. However, there are instances of some women who actually did take to the battlefield at the head of their armies.
- Deborah ~~~ gathered and led her Israelite army against the Canaanites (c.1125BC).
- Zenobia ~~~ led her army with the Romans against Persia (260sAD) and against Rome (270sAD).
- Artemesia ~~~ commanded a small flotilla of warships as part of the navy of the Persian King Xerxes against the Greeks (280BC).
“She had obtained the sovereign power after the death of her husband; and, though she had now a son grown up, yet her brave spirit and manly daring sent her forth to the war, when no need required her to adventure.” (Source: Herodotus)
- Boudicca ~~~ led her army into battle against the legions of Roman in Britain (60sAD).
“the whole island rose under the leadership of Boudicca, a lady of royal descent - for Britons make no distinctions of sex in their appointment of commanders.” (Source: Tacitus)
- Thamar of Georgia ~~~ successfully led her troops in crushing internal rebellions (1189 - 1191), and against the Turks (1190s - 1200s).
- Isabella of Castile ~~~ during the war of succession, she rode hundreds of miles to gain support for her cause - at great personal cost; and she personally took to the battlefield and captured the city of Toledo (1475).
- Philippa of Hainault ~~~ raised an army in the absence of her husband, King Edward III, to defend England's northern borders from the invading Scots. Though Philippa was not actually present on the battlefield of Neville’s Cross (30/09/1346), credit for the victory goes to her.
“So she sent out a summons to men at arms throughout the kingdom of England, wherever she thought they would be, and told them to be at Newcastle-upon-Tyne on a certain day, to resist the Scots.” (Source: Jean Froissart, Chroniques: Livre I, Le manuscrit d'Amiens, Bibliothèque municipale no. 486, ed. George T. Diller, vol. 2 (Geneva, 1992).)
- Empress Maud ~~~ she also fits into Category (5) as she led her army in defence of her succession rights.
“the empress rode every day with the army, and she gave good advice on the most difficult matters; in the whole army there was not a baron so skilled and experienced in war as she was, and there was much talk about her throughout England.” (Source: Histoire des Ducs de Normandie et des Rois d'Angleterre, ed. Francisque Michel, Paris, 1840).
- Matilda of Boulogne ~~~ whilst her husband King Stephen was a captive of Empress Maud, she raised an army to meet Maud on the field of battle.
“she sent for knights throughout all lands, wherever she could get them, and assembled such a great army that she besieged the empress and her son Henry and the king of Scotland and the earl of Leicester and many other noble barons all together in the city of Winchester.” (Source: Histoire des Ducs de Normandie et des Rois d'Angleterre, ed. Francisque Michel, Paris, 1840).
- Urraca of Castile ~~~ forced to defend her inheritance against her husband Alfonso I of Aragon (1111), and to deal with internal strife from her nobles.
- Matilda of Canossa ~~~ with her mother Beatrice, led an army in support of the Papacy against the Holy Roman Emperor (1060s), and then by herself (1080s).
- Aethelflaed, Lady of Mercia ~~~ in conjunction with her brother Edward, she continued their father Alfred’s policy of resistance to the Viking incursions in Britain, obtaining victories on her own behalf.
(3) Women who disguised themselves as men in order to fight in battle. This occurrence became more usual from the 17th Century onwards.
- Catalina de Erauzo
- Mary Read ~~~ fought in the Spanish War of Succession (1701 - 1704) as an armed cadet, a foot soldier and a cavalryman; and again in Holland in the infantry before “turning” pirate.
- Mother Ross (aka: Christine Davies) ~~~ a woman who purportedly passed as a male foot soldier and dragoon during the War of the Spanish Succession died on the 7th of July 1739 and was interred in the burying ground belonging to Chelsea Hospital with military honours.
Continue to Women & Warfare - Part 2
"For my part, I adhere to the maxim of antiquity: The throne is a glorious sepulchre."